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Mhra Bibliography Maker Chicago

Chicago Format Examples (16th Edition)

Carefully follow these examples when compiling and formatting both your in-text citations and bibliography in order to avoid losing marks for citing incorrectly.

I. Notes-Bibliography System

Each example in this section includes a numbered footnote, a shortened form of the note, and a corresponding bibliography entry.

Book with single author or editor:

  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 5. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 5. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Book with multiple authors:

For a book with two authors, note that only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography entry.

  • Full Chicago style citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Ward and Burns, War, 52.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

Print journal article:

  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 89. Walter Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-32.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 89. Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” 335.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Blair, Walter. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-49.

Online journal article:

When citing electronic sources consulted online, the Chicago style citation manual recommends including an electronic resource identifier, where possible, to lead your reader directly to the source.

A URL is a uniform resource locator, which directs the reader straight to the online source. When using a URL, simply copy the address from your browser’s address bar when viewing the article. You must include the source’s full publication information as well.

  • Full Chicago style citation in a footnote:

  • 12. Wilfried Karmaus and John F. Riebow, “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 645, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 12. Karmaus and Riebow, “Storage of Serum,” 645.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643-647. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.


A DOI is a digital object identifier; a unique and permanent name assigned to a piece of intellectual property, such as a journal article, in any medium in which it is published. If it is available, a DOI is preferable to an ISBN.

  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 3. William J. Novak, “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 758, doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Novak, “Myth,” 770.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Novak, William J. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

II. Author-Date System:

Each example in this section includes a Chicago style in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry.

Article with single author or editor, author mentioned in text:

  • In-text citation:

  • Here we empirically demonstrate that workers’ and regulatory agents’ understandings of discrimination and legality emerge not only in the shadow of the law but also, as Albiston (2005) suggests…

  • Reference list entry:

  • Albiston, Catherine R. 2005. “Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights.” Law and Society Review 39 (1): 11-47.

Article with multiple authors, author not mentioned in text:

  • Chicago in-text citation:

  • As legal observers point out, much dispute resolution transpires outside the courtroom but in the “shadow of the law” (Mnookin and Kornhauser 1979)...

  • Reference list entry:

  • Mnookin, Robert, and Lewis Kornhauser. 1979. “Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce.” Yale Law Journal 88 (5): 950-97.

*For a work with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry. However, in the in-text citation you need only cite the last name of the first-listed author, followed by et al. (e.g. Barnes et al. 2008, 118-19)

For more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of the Chicago style citation handbook: The Chicago Manual of Style (Sixteenth Edition), or find more information available here.

MHRA Citation Style:

Developed by the Modern Humanities Research Association, MHRA referencing is commonly used by the writers of the English language. The MHRA Citation was established by the organization for the publications of books and journals for their agency, however, it is now widely used by the writers in modern times. Both the writers and the readers prefer MHRA referencing style for the subjects of arts and humanities. This is because the format is highly convenient and simple to understand.

MHRA style uses footnotes, which is much popular. This helps the readers to gain information about the sources at the foot of the page with clarity. Currently, majority of the institutions prefers the writers to submit their documents, using the third version of the MHRA style.

MHRA Citation Style Procedure:

To implement the format manually, the writer needs use the footnote correctly, as they hold the utmost importance. Whenever you have to use the contributed sources, whether it’s direct or rephrasing, use the footnotes numbers. Complete information is to be provided at the first referral of the source in the footnotes, after which the writer can use the abbreviations. A complete bibliography is to be produced at the end of the document. Be careful in formatting the reference list in accordance with the material used in the text.

Researchomatic’s MHRA Citation Generator:

Researchomatic is one of the most reliable websites to produce automated citations for the writers. With its advanced MHRA citation generator software, the writers can get their document formatted with the MHRA referencing style along with numerous styles they want. Researchomatic will create the citations and bibliography in a matter of seconds so that you can concentrate on the actual research work.

Presenting the work with footnotes and bibliography can be quite difficult for the students and other professionals especially if the time is short. Work pressure along with close deadlines can create a state of panic and there is a high possibility of creating improper citation. Get rid of the burden and let Researchomatic MHRA citation generator to deliver you a high quality format for your academic work, which will create a good impression on your teacher. MHRA reference generator let you save time. You can consume your saved time in researching more about your work and get multiple references that will improve the standard of your research paper. Remember to ask your relevant institution or teacher about the format you are required to use. For the implementation of MHRA format, you need to confirm about its version.

We offer you with the best quality tools and what’s more interesting is that you can use the MHRA reference generator for free. Our aim is to help students deliver standard quality work and refrain from taking pressure about citing their sources in the research work.

With Researchomatic’s MHRA citation generator, you can get accurate citations in no time. So let the software facilitate your work and meanwhile you can relax a little because we know that working on a research paper or assignment is a pretty job work.

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