1 Meztisida

Teleostei Classification Essay

We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among five species of lampridiform fishes, three basal outgroup species (two aulopiforms and one myctophiform), and two species of non-lampridiform acanthomorphs (PolymixiaandPercopsis) using a combined parsimony analysis of morphological and molecular data. Morphological characters included 28 transformation series obtained from the literature. Molecular characters included 223 informative transformation series from an aligned 854-base pair fragment of 12S mtDNA and 139 informative transformation series from an aligned 561-base pair fragment of 16S mtDNA. A total-evidence analysis using the aulopiformsSynodusandAulopusand the myctophiformHygophumas outgroups corroborates the monophyly of Lampridiformes and unitesPolymixiawithPercopsis.Among the lampridiform fishes we examined,Metaveliferis basal, followed in ascending order byLampris, Lophotus, Regalecus,andTrachipterus.This hypothesis is congruent with the most recent morphological analysis of the Lampridiformes and rejects a diphyletic origin of elongate body form within the clade. Analysis of a combined matrix of 12S and 16S mtDNA data yielded a phylogenetic hypothesis isomorphic with the total-evidence phylogeny. Analyses of partitioned DNA data sets reveals that single gene regions are poor predictors of the total-evidence phylogeny while combined analyses of both DNA data sets are good predictors of the total-evidence phylogeny.

Agassiz, L. 1829. In J. B. Spix and L. Agassiz, C. Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII–MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavarie regis augustissimi peracto collegit et pingendos curavit Dr. J. B. de Spix […]. J. B. Spix and L. Agassiz. 138 pp., 98 pls. Monaco (München): C. Wolf. Google Scholar

Arandas-Rego, A. and G. C. Pavanelli. 1990. Novas espécies de cestóides protocefalídeos parasitas de peixes não siluriformes. Rev. Bras. Biol 30:191–101. Google Scholar

Arratia, G. and H. Schultze. 1991. Palatoquadrate and its ossifications: development and homology within Osteichthyans. J. Morphol 208:81. pp. Crossref, Google Scholar

Barriga, R. 1991. Peces de agua dulce. Politecnica. Rev. Inf. Té.-Cienc 16:388. pp. Google Scholar

Bertoni, A. W. 1939. Catalogos sistematicos de los vertebrados del Paraguay. Rev. Soc. Cient. Parag 4:460. pp. Google Scholar

Boeseman, M. 1952. A preliminary list of Surinam fishes not included in Eigenmann's enumeration of 1912. Zool. Meded. (Leiden) 31:17179–200. Google Scholar

Boulenger, G. A. 1898. On a collection of fishes from the Rio Juruá, Brazil. Trans. Zool. Soc. London 14:7421–428. Crossref, Google Scholar

Brewster, B. 1986. A review of the genus HydrocynusCuvier 1819 (Teleostei: Characiformes). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist). Zool 50:3163–206. Google Scholar

Britski, H. A. 1972. Peixes de água doce do Estado de São Paulo. Sistemática: 79–108. Poluição e Piscicultura, Comissão Interestadual da bacia Paraná-Uruguai. Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP, Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo. Google Scholar

Buckup, P. A. 1991. The Characidiinae: a phylogenetic study of the South American darters and their relationships with other characiform fishes. Ph.D diss., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor (Univ. Microfilms Int., Publ. 9135561.) 391 pp. Google Scholar

Buckup, P. A. 1992. Redescription of Characidium fasciatum, type species of the Characidiinae (Teleostei, Characiformes). Copeia 4:1066–1073. Crossref, Google Scholar

Buckup, P. A. 1993. The monophyly of the Characidiinae, a Neotropical group of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Zool. J. Linn. Soc 108:225–245. Crossref, Google Scholar

Buckup, P. A. and P. Petry. 1994. Phylogenetic significance of larval extra-oral teeth in the neotropical Cynodontinae (Characiformes, Ostariophysi). Unpublished abstracts of the 74th annual meeting of the Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Google Scholar

Cala, P. 1977. Los peces de la Orinoquia Colombiana. Lozania 24:21. pp. Google Scholar

Campos, A. A. 1945. Contribuição ao conhecimento das espécies brasileiras do gênero Hydrocynus e afins. Arq. Zool. (São Paulo) 4:467–484. Google Scholar

Castro, R. M. C. 1988. Semaprochilodus varii, a new species of prochilodontid fish (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) from the Marowijne River, Surinam. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 101:3503–508. Google Scholar

Castro, R. M. C. and R. P. Vari. 1990. Moojenichthys Miranda-Ribeiro (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Characidae), a phylogenetic reappraisal and redescription. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 103:3525–542. Google Scholar

Chapmann, W. M. 1944. The osteology of the Pacific deep-bodied anchovy, Anchoa compressa. J. Morphol 74:2311–329. Crossref, Google Scholar

Cione, A. L. and J. R. Casciotta. 1995. Freshwater teleostean fishes from Miocene of Quebrada de la Yesera, Salta, Northwestern Argentina. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol., Abh 196:377–394. Google Scholar

Cione, A. L. 1997. Miocene cynodontids (Osteichthyes: Characiformes) from Parana, Central Eastern Argentina. J. Vertebr. Paleontol 17:3616–619. Crossref, Google Scholar

Cope, E. D. 1878. Synopsis of the fishes of the Peruvian Amazon, obtained by Professor Orton during his expeditions of 1873 and 1877. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc 17:673–701. Google Scholar

Cuvier, G. 1819. Sur les poissons du sous-genre Hydrocyn, sur deux nouvelles espéces de Chalceus, sue les trois nouvelles espéces de des Serrasalmes, et sur l'Argentina glossodonta de Forskahl, qui est l'Albula gonorhynchus de Bloch. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat 5:351–379. Google Scholar

Cuvier, G. 1829. Le régne animal distribuée d'aprées son organisation, pour servir de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction a l'anatomie comparéee. 2nd ed. Tome 2. Paris: Déterville. Google Scholar

Devincenzi, G. J. 1924. Peces del Uruguay. An. Mus. Nac. Montevideo ser. 2 1:4139–293. Google Scholar

Devincenzi, G. J. and L. P. Barattini. 1926. lbum ictiológico del Uruguay. An. Mus. Hist. Nac. Montevideo. Supl. 12 pls. Google Scholar

Devincenzi, G. J. and G. W. Teague. 1942. Ictiofauna del Río Uruguay medio. An. Mus. Hist. Nac. Montevideo ser. 2. 5:4100. pp. Google Scholar

Di Caporiacco, L. 1935. Spedizione Nello Beccari nella Guiana Britanica. Pesci. Monit. Zool. Ital 46:355–71. Google Scholar

Di Persia, D. H. and J. J. Neiff. 1986. The Uruguay river system. In B. R. Davies and K. F. Walker (eds.). The ecology of river systems: 599–621. The Netherlands: Dr W. Junk. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. 1906. The freshwater fishes of South and Middle America. Pop. Sci 68:34515–530. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. 1907. On further collections of fishes from Paraguay. Ann. Carnegie Mus 4:3110–157. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. 1909. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America. Rep. Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia, 1896–1899 3:3225–374. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. 1910. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America. Ibid 3:4375–511. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. 1912. The freshwater fishes of British Guiana, including a study of the ecological grouping of species and the relation of the fauna of the plateau to that of the lowlands. Mem. Carnegie Mus 5:67578. pp. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. 1917. The American Characidae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. (Harvard Univ.) 43:1102. pp. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. and W. R. Allen. 1942. Fishes of Western South America. I. The Intercordilleran and Amazonian lowlands of Peru. II. The High Pampas of Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile; with a revision of the Peruvian Gymnotidae, and of the genus Orestias. Lexington: Univ. Kentucky, 494 pp. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. and B. A. Bean. 1907. An account of Amazon river fishes collected by J. B. Steere; with a note on Pimelodus clarias. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus 31:1503659–668. Crossref, Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. and R. S. Eigenmann. 1891. A catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of South America. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus 14:84281. pp. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. and C. H. Kennedy. 1903. On a collection of fishes from Paraguay, with a synopsis of the American genera of cichlids. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 55:497–537. Google Scholar

Eigenmann, C. H. and F. Ogle. 1907. An annotated list of characin fishes in the United States National Museum and the Museum of Indiana University, with descriptions of new species. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus 33:155636. pp. Crossref, Google Scholar

Eldredge, N. and J. Cracraft. 1980. Phylogenetic patterns and the evolutionary process. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Google Scholar

Eschmeyer, W. N. 1990. Appendix A. In Catalog of the genera of recent fishes: 647. San Francisco: California Acad. Sci. Google Scholar

Eschmeyer, W. N. and R. M. Bailey. 1990. Cynodon, Rhaphiodon. In Catalog of the genera of recent fishes: 115,354. San Francisco: California Acad. Sci. Google Scholar

Evermann, B. W. and W. C. Kendall. 1906. Notes on a collection of fishes from Argentina, South America, with descriptions of three new species. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus 31:148267–108. Crossref, Google Scholar

Farris, J. S. 1988. Hennig86 reference and program.—Documentation for version 1.5. Port Jefferson Station, NY. Google Scholar

Ferreira, J. G., G. M. dos Santos, and M. Jégu. 1988. Aspectos ecológicos da ictiofauna do rio Mucajaí, na área da ilha Paredão, Roraima, Brasil. Amazoniana 10:3339–352. Google Scholar

Fink, S. V. and W. L. Fink. 1981. Interrelationships of the ostariophysan fishes (Teleostei) Zool. J. Linn. Soc 72:297–353. Crossref, Google Scholar

Fink, W. L. and S. H. Weitzman. 1974. The so called cheirodontin fishes of Central America with descriptions of two new species (Pisces: Characidae). Smithson. Contrib. Zool 172:1–46. Crossref, Google Scholar

Fowler, H. W. 1906. Further knowledge of some Heterognathous fishes. Part 2. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 3:58431–483. Google Scholar

Fowler, H. W. 1945. Catálogo sistemático de los peces que habitan en aguas peruanas. Lima: Mus. Hist. Nat. “avier Prado”. Google Scholar

Fowler, H. W. 1950. Os peixes de água doce do Brasil (2° entrega). Arq. Zool.(São Paulo) 6:205–404. Google Scholar

Fowler, H. W. 1958. Some new taxonomic names of fishlike vertebrates. Not. Nat. (Philadelphia) 310:16. pp. Google Scholar

Fowler, H. W. 1975. A catalog of world fishes. Q. J. Taiwan Mus. (Taipei) 28:3–4277–401. Google Scholar

Galvis, G., J. I. Mojica, and F. Rodríguez. 1989. Estudio ecológico de una laguna de desborde del Río Metica, Orinoquia Colombiana. Bogota: Univ. Nac. Colombia. Google Scholar

Géry, J. 1962. Essai sur les affinités phylogénétiques des Agoniates et l'origine des Characidae, à propos de la description d'une forme nouvelle de l'Amazone péruvienne: Agoniates ladigesi. Mitt. Hambg. Zool. Mus. Inst 60:265–284. Google Scholar

Géry, J. 1966. Hoplocharax goethei, a new genus and species of South American characoid fishes, with a review of the sub-tribe Heterocharacine. Icthyologica 38:3281–296. Google Scholar

Géry, J. 1986. Notes de characologie néotropicale: progrès récents dans la connaissance des cynodontinés (Characidés). Rev. Fr. Aquar. Herpetol 13:361–68. Google Scholar

Géry, J., P. Le Bail, and P. Keith. 1999. Cynodon meionactis sp. n., un nouveau characidé endémique du bassin du Haut Maroni en Guyane, avec une note sur la validité du genre Cynodon (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes). Rev. Fr. Aquar. Herpetol 25:3–469–77. Google Scholar

Géry, J. and V. Manhert. 1984. Poissons characoides (Ostariophysi) récoltés par Cl. Vaucher en Amazonie Péruvienne. Arch. Sci. (Geneva) 37:2171–180. Google Scholar

Géry, J. and C. Poivre. 1979. Un curieux système d'accrochage par dents trasitoires chez les jeunes Rhaphiodon vulpinus Agassiz (Pisces, Cypriniformes, Characidae). Rev. Fr. Aquar. Herpetol 6:11–4. Google Scholar

Géry, J. and Vu-Tân-Tuê. 1963. Définitions de Cynopotamus Val. et genres voisins (Pisces, Characoidei). Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat 35:3238–246. Google Scholar

Godoy de, M. P. 1987. Peixes do estado de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis: Univ. Federal Santa Catarina. Google Scholar

Goeldi, E. A. 1898. Primeira contribuição para o conhecimento de peixes do valle do Amazonas e das Guyanas. Bol. Mus. Para 2:443–488. Google Scholar

Goulding, M., M. L. Carvalho, and E. G. Ferreira. 1988. Rio Negro, rich life in poor water. The Hague: SPB Academic Publishing. Google Scholar

Greenwood, P. H., D. E. Rosen, S. H. Weitzman, and G. S. Myers. 1966. Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes with a provisional classification of living forms. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist 131:4339–456. Google Scholar

Gregory, W. K. and G. M. Conrad. 1938. The phylogeny of the characin fishes. Zoologica (New York) 23:4319–360. Google Scholar

Günther, A. 1864. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. vol. 5. London. Google Scholar

Hennig, W. 1950. Grundzüge einer Theorie der phylogenetischen Systematik. Berlin: Deutscher Zentralverlag. Google Scholar

Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetic systematics. Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press. Google Scholar

Howes, G. J. 1976. The cranial musculature and taxonomy of characoid fishes of the tribes Cynodontini and Characini. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist). Zool 29:4203–248. Google Scholar

International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature 1990. OPINION 1581. HydrolycusMüller and Trochel, 1844 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes): Hydrocyon scomberoidesCuvier, 1819 confirmed as type species. Bull. Zool. Nomencl 47:176. Google Scholar

Kner, R. 1859. Zur familie der characinen. III. Folge der ichthyologischen beiträge. Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien 18:9–62. Google Scholar

Kottelat, M. 1988. Authorship, dates of publication, status and types of Spix and Agassiz's Brazilian fishes. Spixiana 11:69–93. Google Scholar

Langeani, F. 1996. Estudo filogenético e revisão taxonômica da família Hemiodontidae Boulenger, 1904) (sensu Roberts, 1974) (Ostariophysi, Characiformes). Ph.D diss., Univ. de São Paulo. Google Scholar

Lasso, C. A. 1988. Inventario de la Ictiofauna de nueve lagunas de inundación del bajo Orinoco, Venezuela. Parte I: Batoidei-Clupeomorpha-Ostariphysis (Characiformes). Mem. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle 48:130121–141. Google Scholar

Lauzanne, L. and G. Loubens. 1985. Peces del Rio Mamoré. Paris. Éditions de l'ORSTOM, 116 pp. Google Scholar

Lesiuk, T. P. and C. C. Lindsey. 1978. Morphological peculiarities in the neck-bending Amazonian characoid fish Rhaphiodon vulpinus. Can. J. Zool 56:991–997. Crossref, Google Scholar

Leviton, A. E. and R. H. Gibbs Jr. 1988. Standards in herpetology and ichthyology. Part I: Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology, supplement No. 1: additions and corrections. Copeia 1:280–282. Google Scholar

Leviton, A. E., R. H. Gibbs Jr, E. Heal, and C. E. Dawson. 1985. Standards in herpetology and ichthyology. Part I: Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology. Copeia 3:802–832. Google Scholar

Lowe-McConnell, R. H. 1964. The fishes of the Rupununi savanna district of British Guiana, South America. Part I. Ecological groupings of fish species and effects of the seasonal cycle on the fish. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool 45:304103–144. Crossref, Google Scholar

López, H. L., J. R. Casciotta, A. M. Miquelarena, and R. C. Menni. 1984. Nuevas localidades para peces de agua dulce de la Argentina. IV. Adiciones a la ictiofauna del Río Uruguay y algunos afluentes. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna. Environ 19:73–87. Crossref, Google Scholar

Lucena, C. A. S. 1987. Revisão e redefinição do gênero Neotropical Charax Scopoli, 1777 com a descrição de quatro espécies novas (Pisces: Characiformes: Characidae). Comun. Mus. Ciênc. PUC-RS Sér. Zool 40:5–124. Google Scholar

Lucena, C. A. S. 1993. Estudo filogenético da família Characidae com uma discussão dos grupos naturais propostos (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Characiformes). Ph.D diss., Univ. São Paulo. Google Scholar

Lucena, C. A. S. and N. A. Menezes. 1998. A Phylogenetic analysis of Roestes Günther and Gilbertolus Eigenmann with a hypothesis on the relationships of the Cynodontidae and Acestrorhynchidae (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Characiformes). In L. R. Malabarba; R. E. Reis; R. P. Vari; Z. M. Lucena; and C. A. S. Lucena (eds.). Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes: 261–278. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs. Google Scholar

Lundberg, J. G. 1997. Fishes of the La Venta fauna: additional taxa, biotic and paleoenvironmental implications. In R. F. Kay, R. H. Madden, R. L. Cifelli, and J. J. Flynn (eds.), Vertebrate paleontology in the Neotropics: The Miocene fauna of La Venta Colombia: 67–91. Washington, DC: Smithson. Inst. Press. Google Scholar

Machado-Allison, A. 1983. Estudios sobre la sistematica de la subfamilia Serrasalminae (Teleostei, Characidae). Parte II. Discusion sobre la condicion monofiletica de la subfamilia. Acta Biol. Venez 11:4145–195. Google Scholar

Machado-Allison, A. 1985. Estudios sobre la subfamilia Serrasalminae. Parte III: sobre el estatus genérico y relaciones filogenéticas de los géneros Pygopristis, Pygocentrus, Pristobrycon, y Serrasalmus (Teleostei-Characidae-Serrasalminae). Ibid 12:119–42. Google Scholar

Machado-Allison, A. 1987. Los peces de los Llanos de Venezuela. Caracas: Univ. Central de Venezuela. Google Scholar

Maddison, W. P. and D. R. Maddison. 1992. MacClade: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. Version. 3.04. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. Google Scholar

McAllister, D. E. 1968. The evolution of branchiostegals and the classification of teleostome fishes, living and fossil. Bull. Natl Mus. Can 221:1–239. Google Scholar

Mago-Leccia, F. 1970. Lista de los peces de Venezuela, incluyendo un estudio preliminar sobre la ictiogeografia del país. Caracas: Ministerio de Agricultura y Cria. Google Scholar

Mendes dos Santos, G., M. Jegu, and B. Merona. 1984. Catálogo de peixes comerciais do baixo Rio Tocantins. Projeto Tucuruí. Manaus: Eletronorte, CNPq, INPA. Google Scholar

Menezes, N. A. 1969. Systematics and evolution of the tribe Acestrorhynchini (Pisces, Characidae). Arq. Zool. (São Paulo) 18:1–21–150. Google Scholar

Menezes, N. A. 1974. Redescription of the genus Roestes (Pisces, Characidae). Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 27:17219–225. Google Scholar

Menezes, N. A. 1976. On the Cynopotaminae, a new subfamily of Characidae (Osteichthyes, Ostariophysi, Characoidei). Arq. Zool. (São Paulo) 28:21–91. Google Scholar

Menezes, N. A. and J. Géry. 1983. Seven new Acestrorhynchin characid species (Osteichthyes, Ostariophysi, Characiformes) with comments on the systematics of the group. Rev. Suisse Zool 90:563–592. Crossref, Google Scholar

Menezes, N. A. and C. A. S. Lucena. 1998. Revision of the subfamily Roestinae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Cynodontidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshw 9:3279–291. Google Scholar

Monod, T. 1950. Notes d'icthyologie ouest-africaine. Bull. Inst. Fr. Afr. Noire 12:71. pp. Google Scholar

Müller, J. and F. H. Troschel. 1844. Synopsis generum et specierum familiae Characinorum (prodromus descriptionis novorum generum et specierum). Arch. Naturgesch. (Berlin) 10:81–98. Google Scholar

Müller, J. and F. H. Troschel. 1845. Horae Ichthyologicae. Beschreibung und Abbildung neuer Fische; die Familie Characinen. Berlin, 40 pp. Google Scholar

Nelson, E. M. 1949. The swim bladder and weberian apparatus of Rhaphiodon vulpinus Agassiz, with notes on some additional morphological features. J. Morphol 84:3495–523. Crossref, PubMed, Google Scholar

Nelson, G. E. and N. I. Platnick. 1981. Systematics and biogeography: cladistics and vicariance. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 567 pp. Google Scholar

Nielsen, J. G. 1974. Fish types in the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Copenhagen: Univ. Copenhagen. Google Scholar

Nixon, K. 1992. Clados version 1.2, program and reference. Ithaca, NY. Google Scholar

Ortega, H. and R. P. Vari. 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool 437:25. pp. Google Scholar

Ovchynnyk, M. M. 1967. Freshwater fishes of Ecuador and perspective for development of fish cultivation. Michigan State Univ. Latin Am. Stud. Center. Monogr. Ser. 1. 44 pp. Google Scholar

Papavero, N. 1971. Essays on the history of Neotropical Dipterology, with special reference to collectors (1750–1905). Vol. 1. São Paulo: Mus. Zool., Univ. São Paulo. Google Scholar

Patterson, C. and G. D. Johnson. 1995. The intermuscular bones and ligaments of teleostean fishes. Smithson. Contrib. Zool 559:83. pp. Google Scholar

Pellegrin, J. 1899. Note sur les poissons recuellis par M. F. Geay dans l'Apure et ses affluents. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat 5:156–159. Google Scholar

Pellegrin, J. 1909. Characinidés du Brésil rapportès par M. Jobert. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat 15:4147–153. Google Scholar

Perugia, A. 1891. Sopra alcuni pesci sud-american conservati nel Museo Civico do Storia Naturali di Genova. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Giacomo Doria 2:106–11. Google Scholar

Peters, W. 1877. Über die von Dr. Sachs in Venezuela gesammelten fische. Akad. Monatsber. Berlin 1877:469–473. Google Scholar

Planquette, P., P. Keith, and P. Y. Le Bail. 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. vol. 1. Collect. Patrimoine Naturel. vol. 22. Paris: IEGB -M.N.H.N. Google Scholar

Ramos, T. C. 1997. Tree gardner 2.2, program and reference. São Paulo. Google Scholar

Regan, T. C. 1911. The classification of the teleostean fishes of the order Ostariophysi. 1—Cyprinoidea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist 8:813–32. Crossref, Google Scholar

Reinhardt, J. 1849. Nye sydamerikanske Ferskvandsfiske. Vidensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren 3–5:29–57. Google Scholar

Reis, R. E. 1989. Systematic revision of the neotropical characid subfamily Stethaprioninae (Pisces, Characiformes). Comun. Mus. Ciênc. PUC-RS Sér. Zool 2:63–86. Google Scholar

Ringuelet, R. A., R. H. Aramburu, and A. A. de Aramburu. 1967. Los peces argentinos de agua dulce. La Plata: Com. Invest. Científica. Google Scholar

Roberts, C. D. 1993. Comparative morphology of spined scales and their phylogenetic significance in the Teleostei. Bull. Mar. Sci 52:160–113. Google Scholar

Roberts, T. R. 1967. Tooth formation and replacement in characoid fishes. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull 8:4231–247. Google Scholar

Roberts, T. R. 1969. Osteology and relationships of characoid fishes, particularly the genera Hepsetus, Salminus, Hoplias, Ctenolucius, and Acestrorhynchus. Proc. California. Acad. Sci 36:15391–500. Google Scholar

Roberts, T. R. 1973. Osteology and relationships of the Prochilodontidae, a South American family of characoid fishes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool 145:4213–235. Google Scholar

Roberts, T. R. 1974. Osteology and relationships of the neotropical characoid fishes of the families Hemiodontidae (including Anodontinae) and Parodontinae. Ibid 146:9411–472. Google Scholar

Saul, W. G. 1975. An ecological study of fishes at a site in upper amazonian Ecuador. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 127:1293–134. Google Scholar

Schultz, L. P. 1944. The fishes of the family Characinidae from Venezuela, with descriptions of seventeen new forms. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus 94:173–338. Crossref, Google Scholar

Schultz, L. P. 1950. Review of thirteen genera of South American fishes in the subfamilies Cynodontinae, Hepsetinae, and Characinae, with the description of a new Cyrtocharax. In Studies honoring Trevor Kinkaid: 43–73. Seattle: Univ. Washington. Google Scholar

Starks, E. C. 1913. The fishes of the Stanford expedition to Brazil. Stanford Univ. Publ. Univ. Ser 1913:1–77. Google Scholar

Starks, E. C. 1926. Bones of the ethmoid region of the fish skull. Stanford Univ. Publ. Univ. Ser. Biol. Sci 4:3139–338. Google Scholar

Starks, E. C. 1930. The primary shoulder girdle of the bony fishes. Ibid 6:2149–239. Google Scholar

Steindachner, F. 1883. Beiträge zur Kentniss der flussfische Sudamerika's (IV). Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien 46:144. pp. Google Scholar

Swofford, D. L. 1993. “Phylogenetic systematics Using Parsimony, Version 3.1.1,” Program and documentation. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Google Scholar

Swofford, D. L., G. J. Olsen, P. J. Waddell, and D. M. Hillis. 1996. Phylogeny inference. In D. M. Hillis, C. Moritz, and B. K. Mable (eds), Molecular systematics. 2nd ed.: 407–514 Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Google Scholar

Taphorn, D. C. 1992. The characiform fishes of the Apure River drainage, Venezuela. Biollania, Edición Especial 4:534. pp. Google Scholar

Taphorn, D. C. and C. G. Lilyestrom. 1984. Los peces del Modulo “Fernando Corrales”. Resultados ictiologicos del proyecto de investigacion del conicit-PIMA-18. Rev. UNELLEZ de Cienc. Tecnol 2:55–85. Google Scholar

Taylor, W. R. and G. C. Van Dyke. 1985. Revised procedures for staining and clearing small fishes and other vertebrates for bone and cartilage study. Cybium 9:2107–119. Google Scholar

Toledo-Piza, M., N. A. Menezes, and G. Mendes dos Santos. 1999. Revision of the neotropical fish genus Hydrolycus (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Cynodontinae) with the description of two new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshw 10:3247–272. Google Scholar

Travassos, H. 1946. Contribuição para o conhecimento da família Characidae Gill, 1893 III. Discussão sobre os gêneros Cynodon Spix, 1829 e RhaphiodonAgassiz, 1829, com novo nome de subfamíila. Sum. Bras. Biol 1:9129–141. Google Scholar

Terofal von, F. 1983. Die Fischausbeute der brasilien-Expedition 1817–1820 von J. B. Spix und C. F. Ph. V. Martius. Spixiana 9:313–317. Google Scholar

Ulrey, A. B. 1895. The South American Characinidae collected by Charles Frederick Hartt. Ann. New York Acad. Sci 8:257–300. Crossref, Google Scholar

Valenciennes, M. A. 1849. Des Cynodons.In G. Cuvier and M. A. Valenciennes. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Vol. 22:323–336

Leave a Comment


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *