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Quadrat Gcse Biology Coursework

SPECIMEN MATERIAL GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY Higher Tier Paper 2: Biology 2H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 15 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator. Instructions Answer allquestions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information There are 70 marks available on this paper. The marks for questions are shown in brackets. You are expected to use a calculator where appropriate. You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation in your answers. When answering questions 02.3 and 03.3 you need to make sure that your answer: ‒is clear, logical, sensibly structured ‒fully meets the requirements of the question ‒shows that each separate point or step supports the overall answer. Advice In all calculations, show clearly how you work out your answer. H Please write clearly, in block capitals. Centre number Candidate number Surname Forename(s) Candidate signature

A transect is a line across a habitat or part of a habitat. It can be as simple as a string or rope placed in a line on the ground. The number of organisms of each species along a transect can be observed and recorded at regular intervals.

The distribution of organisms in a habitat is affected by the presence of other living organisms - such as herbivores or carnivores - that might eat them. It is also affected by abiotic factors, such as availability of light or water.

A kite diagram shows the number of animals (or percentage cover for plants) against distance along a transect.

In the example above, the distribution of dandelion plants gradually changes from five metres to 20 metres along the transect. A quadrat has been placed at regular intervals of a metre (or a few metres) along the transect.

A gradual change in the distribution of species across a habitat is called zonation. It can happen because of a gradual change in an abiotic factor.

A transect is usually used to investigate a gradual change in a habitat rather than to simply estimate the number of organisms within it.

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