Sports And Games Essay Quotes Or Italics
Properly Punctuating Titles
Properly punctuating titles of literature, music, art, movies, and other works can be confusing, and the rules aren’t always consistent from resource to resource regarding this topic. Also, since mistakes are prevalent, we are so used to seeing the wrong punctuation that it actually looks right!
Here are some helpful hints on how to properly punctuate titles using capitalization, italics, underlining, and quotation marks.
Step 1, Capitalize Titles Correctly!
Although rules regarding correct title capitalization vary greatly, here are a few pointers to stand by: Capitalize the first and last word in a title and every word in the title except articles and prepositions. Some suggest capitalizing prepositions five letters or more in length, and I agree with this simply because it looks better (hence, my business name is All About Writing instead of All about Writing).
Capitalizing involves only the first letter of the word, of course.
When to Use Italics: Titles of Larger Works
Italics indicate the title of a major or larger work. Use italics for titles such as books, novels, magazines, journals, newspapers, and book-length poems, collections and anthologies; CDs, albums, ballets, operas, and longer, classical music compositions; television series, plays, movies, and films; video games; websites; and works of art and art exhibits.
Just remember, the title of any piece that stands alone as a single, unified work should be italicized.
What About Underlining?
In general, underlining and italics are used interchangeably, so the above rules for italics also apply for underlining.
However, when using the computer or typing, italics should always be used. Underlining should replace italics in handwritten projects only, as who has mastered the art of writing in italics so that it is legible and noticeable?
When to Use Quotation Marks: Titles of Smaller Works
Since quotation marks are tiny, you can remember that they are used for smaller works within the larger work or collection. Use quotation marks for titles of poems, short stories, book chapters, and articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers; and songs, single television episodes, and commercials.
It is important to be consistent throughout your writing with properly using italics versus quotation marks. Writing handbooks (Chicago Manual of Style, MLA, APA, and many others) vary in their rules for capitalizing and punctuating titles. Certain writing projects mandate using one writing handbook’s format over the others, so for academic work, please check with your professor as to the preferred handbook to use for your writing, citation, and punctuation guidelines.
Schedule Your Free Consultation
Remember, All About Writing is here to help with writing, editing and proofreading. We can see you through your writing project, start to finish, and we never mind providing advice when writing questions arise. As always, all of our services offer a free, half-hour, in-person consultation in the Howell area to address any questions or concerns about your project.
Learn more about All About Writing and owner Christa Riddle at www.allaboutwritingconsulting.com. Remember, with All About Writing, writing help is just a call or click away! Call us today to schedule your free consultation and get your project underway. We are here to assist with any phase of the project.
-by Christa Riddle
Remember the days when your manual typewriter didn’t have a key for the number 1, so you used a lowercase letter L instead? And to type an exclamation point, you typed an apostrophe first, backspaced, and then typed a period beneath it? Sure you do, punk.
Clarification: I’m not that old; my high school was poor. We pasted our newspaper dummies together with wax and made type changes with a dull razor.
Well, we don’t type that way anymore, because technology has blessed us with 1s and !s on our keyboards. Likewise, because we are capable of rendering type in italics, you underline titles only when writing them by hand or using software that doesn’t italicize. As long as you remember that underlining equals italics and to never underline when you can italicize, you’re good.
You can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations.
As for enclosing titles in quotation marks or italicizing them, you can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations, but Associated Press style doesn’t italicize nothin’ and Chicago style has layers of specificity and if-then statements. Fun!
Because the Associated Press stylebook is not indexed and the manual for Chicago style covers title style in several sections (intermixed with name style and capitalization style), some title styles may have been inadvertently omitted due to oblivion on my part. Please send me a note if any oversight makes you twitch.
It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.
Following is the breakdown between AP style and Chicago style. This is intended as a quick rundown or cheat sheet; for examples of each, please refer to the pages and sections indicated. “Neither” means that the usual headline-style (or title-style) caps still apply, but the title/name is naked as far as quotes and italics are concerned. (Capitalization for titles will be covered in a future blog entry.)
Note: Use Command-F or Ctrl-F to perform searches.
|Titles for . . .||AP||Chicago|
|Albums||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.192)|
|Almanacs||Neither (p. 62)|
|Apps||Neither (p. 62), e.g., Facebook, Foursquare||Italics (8.193)|
|Art||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.193)|
|Bible||Neither (p. 62)|
|Blog entries||Quotes (8.187)|
|Books||Quotes (p. 62)—but the Bible and catalogs of reference material use neither||Italics (8.166)—but book series and editions use neither (8.174)|
|Catalogs||Neither (p. 62)|
|Classical music, nicknames||Quotes (p. 63)|
|Classical music, identified by sequence||Neither (p. 63)|
|Columns (in periodicals)||Neither (8.175, 14.205)|
|Comic strips||Italics (8.194)|
|Computer games and computer-game apps||Quotes (p. 62), e.g., “Farmville”||Italics (Chicago Style Q&A)|
|Computer software||Neither for software such as WordPerfect or Windows (p. 62)|
|Conferences||Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes|
|Departments (in periodicals)||Neither (8.175, 14.202)|
|Dictionaries||Neither (p. 62)|
|Directories||Neither (p. 62)|
|Encyclopedias||Neither (p. 62)|
|Exhibitions (large)||Neither (8.195)|
|Exhibitions (small)||Italics (8.195)|
|Fairs (large)||Neither (8.195)|
|Fairs (small)||Italics (8.195)|
|Gazetteers||Neither (p. 62)|
|Handbooks||Neither (p. 62)|
|Journals||Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Lecture series||Neither (8.86)|
|Lectures (individual)||Quotes (p. 62)||Quotes (8.86)|
|Magazines||Neither (p. 159)||Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Meetings||Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes|
|Movies||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.185)|
|Newspapers||Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Operas||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.189)—for long musical compositions or instrumental works, see 8.189-8.190|
|Periodicals||Italics (8.166), unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)|
|Plays||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.181)|
|Podcast episodes||Quotes (8.187)|
|Poems||Quotes (p. 62)||Quotes (8.179)—unless book length, then treated as book (italics)|
|Radio episodes (in series)||Quotes (8.185)|
|Radio programs and series||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.185)|
|Short stories||Quotes (8.175)|
|Songs||Quotes (p. 62)||Quotes (8.189)|
|Speeches||Quotes (p. 62)||Neither (8.75)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes.|
|Television episodes (in series)||Quotes (8.185)|
|Television programs and series||Quotes (p. 62)||Italics (8.185)|
|Unpublished works||Quotes (8.184)|
|Video blogs||Italics (8.187)|
|Video-blog episodes||Quotes (8.187)|
|Web pages and sections||Quotes (8.186)|
When it gets confusing, just remember these golden rules of copyediting:
- Whatever you choose, be consistent.
- But beware of having a tin ear.
- It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.